Manufacturer Wedgwood porcelain

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Wedgwood porcelain is the national heritage of England and the epitome of the highest quality in the world of ceramics. The history of the British Wedgwood factory spans over 250 years, during which many examples of earthenware and porcelain have been recognized as authentic works of art. They adorn not only the leading museums of the world but also serve as objects of pride for private collectors. Among the customers of this unique pottery was the Russian Empress Catherine II. At the origins of history, the name Josiah Wedgwood stands alongside such famous 18th-century ceramists as Johann Friedrich Böttger and Bernard Palissy. It was with him that the production of ceramic products was elevated to the status of a cult, leading to an unprecedented demand for porcelain tableware in England. As one of Josiah Wedgwood's contemporaries later wrote, "a traveler setting off from London or Paris to St. Petersburg could encounter it even in the most provincial inn, and at the same time it was an object of desire for royal individuals." The founder of the ceramic "movement" was born in 1730 in the county of Staffordshire, which still maintains leadership in ceramics production in England. All descendants and family members were ceramists, so the boy simply had no chances - his career was predetermined from birth. In childhood, Josiah survived smallpox, lost a leg, and could not work properly at the potter's wheel. Being an apprentice to his older brother, who inherited the workshop after their father's death, from the age of 9, he diligently mastered the basics of the family business. The period of accumulating theoretical knowledge gave way to a stage of practical experience and bold experiments, during which new clay and glaze compositions were developed, as well as unique technologies of tempering and painting were invented. Success was preceded by countless hours spent studying scientific works on ceramics, analyzing and classifying the properties of various types of clay, and searching for the ideal composition to create...The text is about the achievements of Wedgwood, a renowned ceramic producer. In 1754, Wedgwood collaborated with Thomas Wildon, one of the best ceramicists in England at the time. Together, they invented a green glaze that was used in the production of unconventional-shaped tableware. Teapots, coffee pots, sugar bowls, candy dishes resembling pineapples, colorful cauliflowers, and other exotic fruits and vegetables were decorated with intricate plant-inspired patterns. The glaze not only had a glossy shine in the sunlight but also impressed with its vibrant colors. Wedgwood's next achievement was the development of a formula for the so-called "creamware," which became known as creamware. The proportions of the ingredients were meticulously and professionally selected, surpassing all expectations. The cream-colored earthenware became a worthy competitor to porcelain and even won the favor of Queen Charlotte. In 1765, she received a gift of a breakfast service made of creamware, which delighted her. Since then, the earthenware became known as Queen's Ware. The artistic style of the "creamware" was based on classical principles but presented in a light and natural way. Smooth outlines of plates, pear-shaped coffee pots, and subdued painted shades created a harmonious design. The plant motifs gracefully flowed along the edges of saucers and dinner plates, exuding vitality. Nature-inspired designs included drawings of woodland herbs, wildflowers, leaves, and fruits. The decor emphasized simplicity and clean lines, without rigid geometric precision. Wedgwood's business acumen and extensive practical experience allowed him to obtain permission to build his own ceramic manufacturing facility. In 1759, the opening of his factory in Burslem took place. The demand for his products was so high that by 1769, Wedgwood had to establish a special village next to the factory for his workers.Introduction to Thomas Bentley In 1762, there was an acquaintance with Thomas Bentley, a legendary figure of his time. A traveler, connoisseur of antiquity, prominent social activist, member of the Philosophical Society, founder of the public library in Liverpool - he conquered Wedgwood with his extensive knowledge not only in the field of classical art but also porcelain production. Friendship turned into a business partnership, and as a result, in 1769, a new factory called "Etruria" was opened. The first joint works were six vases made of black basalt mass and stylized in the Greek red-figure painting style. The direction of the design was chosen not by chance, as in the 18th century, England was literally covered with a wave of interest in the history of Ancient Egypt and Rome - the demand for such products was colossal. Among the aristocracy, there was a passion for collecting, and the Wedgwood manufacture's novelties were eagerly awaited. Two more vases, unique in their perfection, came out of the master's hand. One, for wine, is dedicated to Bacchus, the god of vegetation and winemaking - decorated with grapevines, bull skulls, and the figure of a goat-legged satyr. The other, for water, is dedicated to Neptune, the god of seas and water - decorated with a figure of a Triton, marine seaweed, and dolphin sketches. Some masterpieces from the ancient period were collected in the collection of William Hamilton, the English ambassador to Naples. Later, he became a close friend of Wedgwood, opening the doors to high society in Europe for him. Invention of Jasper porcelain One of the most significant discoveries in ceramic production since the invention of porcelain by the Chinese. Or at least, that's the opinion most historians studying the topic of the global evolution of porcelain agree on. The new material had the properties of porcelain, had increased strength (hence the alternative name, jasper), and also, due to the presence of sodium carbonate in its composition, it had the ability to be colored in different shades.Colors. Metal oxides served as catalysts.

Externally, the jasper mass resembled "white elegant porcelain biscuit", as the creator himself said, had a velvety surface and retained the same color on the fracture as on the outside. The color range varied from gray, gray-blue, and blue to pink, lilac, dark red, and brown. But the signature color became blue, and it is this jasper from Wedgwood that is unmistakably recognized among other types of porcelain. The products were decorated with white relief images, which were applied to the object and then fixed on the surface during firing. Most often, on vases, picture frames, medallions, snuffboxes, and other works of art, antique plots could be seen.

The ideas of neoclassicism embodied in porcelain reached their peak in the 1770s. The products made of jasper mass were characterized by simplicity and strictness of lines, precise balance of geometric forms, but at the same time they impressed with their multifigure composition. When forming the relief decor, the main rule was taken into account - it should fit into a frieze composition and be directed along the plane. This requirement was well met by dynamic plots with a mythological bias: military processions, dancing figures of people, rituals of sacrifice, etc.

The most famous work of this period was the famous Portland Vase, made from a prototype in 1789. The original, dated to the 1st century BC, was owned by the Duke of Portland, who provided the relic to Wedgwood as a sample. The fact that the vase existed in a single copy drove many collectors and art connoisseurs crazy. Many wanted to possess it, but unsuccessfully. And then the master decided to create a twin copy, thereby laying the foundation for the concept of an edition. The new vase turned out to be even better than the previous one. More elegant, sculptural, high-quality, it became a kind of peak in the artistic career of Josiah., and subsequently became the symbol of the Wedgwood brand. Her image could be found as part of the company's logo as well as on the hallmark of the products they produced. Another area of activity was the production of jewelry, particularly valued were camellias made of black basalt and jasper. In addition to mythological figures, the medallions also featured portraits of prominent figures of the time such as Adam Smith, Isaac Newton, and William Shakespeare. Among the artists who worked at the porcelain manufactory, many famous names could be found, including Joachim Smith, John Flaxman, and Lady Templetown. Order for Catherine II In 1774, Catherine II placed a large and very unusual order with the British company Wedgwood - a dinner service for 50 people. At the time, she was overseeing the construction of a country residence on the Tsarskoye Selo Road, with architect Yuri Felten. Due to the increased humidity and marshy terrain, the area was nicknamed "kerkekexinen," which translated from Finnish as "frog swamp." Hence, the idea arose to decorate the tableware items with a frog emblem. Before starting the work, Wedgwood and Bentley worked on a project for a catalog of drawings, which were intended to be placed on the tableware items. The images were not meant to be repeated, and this became a real problem. The porcelain set included 1,208 pieces - 944 for the dinner ceremony and 264 for dessert. In order to assemble such an impressive collection of paintings, a sort of "inventory" of all the landmarks in England had to be conducted. The list included sketches of abbeys, cathedrals, castles, streets and park alleys, architectural monuments, family estates, and other landscapes with historical and artistic value. Around 30 painting masters worked tirelessly on the set day and night, while only one artist drew the frog logo. As a result, the tableware was adorned with 1,222 drawings of views from England, Wales, and Scotland.Oh The cost of the set was 16,406 rubles. In today's currency, it could cost over 9 million rubles. Before sending the set to Russia, Wedgewood organized an exhibition in London to showcase the results of his grand efforts. The event made a big impact in the upper circles of British society. Besides admiring the scale and intricacy of the work, members of high society even complained that their castle was not depicted on the tableware or was drawn too small. The porcelain was made using a special technology similar to the "Creamware" appreciated by Queen Charlotte. Firing was carried out at the Etruria factory, and then the blanks were brought to Chelsea, where they were painted, giving them their final appearance. The color palette ranged from purple and beige to brown and charcoal black. After the completion of the work, the set was named "Russian". Additional elements were later created in Russian porcelain manufactories. The completeness of the service was determined based on the requirements of diplomatic protocol and court etiquette. It included a large number of plates of various depths and diameters, tureens, salad bowls, banquet dishes, sauceboats, etc. The dessert section included glasses and shot glasses, saucers, creamers and small dishes, ice cream dishes, ice stands, fruit bowls, and dozens of other types of tableware. In 1910, the set was brought to the Hermitage, where with the assistance of art historian Sergei Troynitsky, a thematic exhibition dedicated to Wedgwood brand products was organized. Afterward, a large part of the service set moved from Peterhof to the Imperial Hermitage for permanent residence. To this day, 744 items from the legendary "Frog Service" have been preserved and are available for public viewing in the museum, as well as in professionally cataloged photos. Developments after Josiah Wedgwood's death Family traditions, which were upheld by his heirs,The great master held and multiplied, received continuation in his descendants. Using all the benefits of technological progress, the children, and then the grandchildren, transferred production to a mechanized format, significantly increasing labor productivity. Bone china was actively exported to almost all European countries, and new collections of tableware and interior decor items continued to delight with their elegance, quality, and craftsmanship. The Etruria Factory was considered one of the most modern in the world, and even the depression of the 1930s did not lead to a decrease in porcelain production volumes. On the contrary, the company's management managed to build another factory, Wedgwood, in Barlaston, where electricity was even installed. Over the next few years, its capacity tripled. There were also changes in the methods of production - improved composition formulas, sculpture of products, design, painting techniques, etc. In 1966, the Wedgwood company had a staff of about 2000 people, and over the next 5-7 years, the number of employees increased to 5500. There were already eight factories under the trade name. Today, the share of Wedgwood porcelain products accounts for 25% of the total British production. More than half of what the corporation produces is exported. For its achievements in terms of export policy, it has been awarded 11 royal awards. In the 1980s, the Japanese market was conquered, and a network of sales outlets was created across the country. In order to allow porcelain lovers to study the history of the brand's development, a special public center was built in 1975. It houses an extensive museum collection of products from different time periods, as well as exhibitions that provide an understanding of the working process of creating Wedgwood porcelain. In 1987, a collaboration with Waterford Crystal, the Irish producer of crystal, took place.Stalya. As a result, the company Waterford Wedgwood was formed, which continues to uphold English traditions and supply elite porcelain worldwide.

Lot No. 5157
94 000.00