Authorship Khlebnikov Ivan Petrovich

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Factory I.P. Khlebnikova, 1871-1917

A lot of information has been preserved about the jewelry masterpieces of the enterprise Ivan Petrovich Khlebnikov. But very little is known about the personality of the manufacturer and his life, especially until the foundation of the factory. The future manufacturer was born in 1819. His father Pyotr Khlebnikov received the merchant certificate in 1832 and, possibly, had his jewelry production. Where and what education the young Ivan was not known, he probably worked in the organization of his father from his young age, then continued his job, since Ivan Petrovich, in preserved documents, was mentioned by the merchant of the 1st guild, selling silver, gold and diamonds In the silver row of the city part. Ivan Petrovich turned 52 years old when he opened in 1871 a Moscow factory of products of gold, silver, diamonds "in the Yauz part, in the house of Naryshkin." The main building still stands on the corner of Yauzskaya Street and the Ryumin lane, along which former factory buildings stretch. Ivan Petrovich, who has been trading in precious works for about 40 years, has acquired excellent technical knowledge in many areas of jewelry.

The fame and success of Khlebnikov increased incredibly rapidly. A year after the opening, the organization officially began to supply to the court of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, the brother of Emperor Alexander II, jewelry. From now on, the activity of the manufacturer and his enterprise will be well traced.

After another year, Khlebnikov’s products were highly appreciated by Europe. In 1873, the jeweler received two medals at the World Exhibition in Vienna, showing a rich collection of objects made in Russian creative traditions. Emalemic and minted work were incredibly skillful. Particular attention was attracted by the folding of complex and excellent work, the sash of which were made by colored blocked enamels.

The manufacturer’s stores were in the best trading places: in the Silver Row, on the Kuznetsk bridge, Ilyinskaya Street in Moscow, on Nevsky Prospekt in St. Petersburg and in Nizhny Novorodsk on the main fair line. About a hundred workers worked at the enterprise. The sculptural and drawing schools were opened.

By 1877, the enterprise became the supplier of the Dutch, Dutch, Montenegrin, Serbian princely and royal courtyards, as well as the court of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, the brother of Emperor Alexander III.

In 1879, the long -awaited dream of a jeweler came true . He received the right to be called the supplier of the highest court and put on the products an image of the state coat of arms.

by 1880, expanded production turned into a high -tech enterprise with masterful, where about 300 craftsmen, copper, silver, minters, enameliers, filigers worked. , haberdashery. Given the overgrown scale, the participation in the sons of Mikhail, Alexei, Nikolai, Vladimir, in 1880 a trading house "I.P. Khlebnikov with his sons and Co. "

rested and was buried by Ivan Petrovich in 1881. His last refuge was the Spaso-Andronievsky Monastery. But his case continued to flourish. Filling shops of all kinds of jewelry products of various costs, performing orders of eminent Russian and foreign persons, making cathedral and temple masterpieces, the company grew. In 1887, the heirs formed a joint -stock "Partnership in the production of silver, gold and jewelry of I.P. Khlebnikov, sons and Co.". It was a new form of government with the initial capital of 660,000 rubles. The factory, Moscow and St. Petersburg stores of one of the oldest Russian companies Sazikov passed to the expanded enterprise. The company, improving technical equipment, purchased a steam boiler and two steam vehicles for the plant, which was very progressive in those years.

the factory was closed in the summer of 1917, after which it was nationalized by the Bolsheviks in 1918 and transformed into Moscow Platinum factory ".

The main area created by bread works was the Russian style, which harmoniously combined with restrained and plastic modern. The national ornaments reproduced by enamels looked like the smallest painting with a brush, or the mosaic lined with gems. In this technique, canteens and written beliefs, cigarette and cigarette, snufflers, caskets, a throne form are covered. In the dishes of precious metals, the forms of Russian buckets, spells, brother, and bowls were guessed. Inknings in the form of Russian tower, utensils in stylized form or images of firewood, swans, roosters. The album plates and dishes adorned the bas -reliefs of the life of the life of Sergius of Radonezh, John the Terrible, the scenes of the Russian round dance and legends. Silver interior sculptures on the topic of folklore and peasant life were made with irresistible grace, trifles were worked out in the finest images. Puchkov, the best mintor of the company, in silver could express the texture of tissue, hair, and even softness of the body.

Khlebnikov's masters were from the best in Chekan Nom's business and especially succeeded in the art of a blocked enamel. They competed in this complex enamel technique to P. Ovchinnikov, an unsurpassed specialist. In the technique of picturesque enamel, many works were decorated with miniatures, and enamel with a scan turned products into lace.

mass silver objects were so pure beautiful shape and high -quality manufacture that with a minimum of decor or even without great demand. Several such products were exhibited in the gallery of antique gifts of the Lermontov: a cup holder combining the Art Nouveau style and classic Russian ornament, and a silver tablespoon of 1887 of the classical form.

The combination of technical perfection, original intentions and deep knowledge of national traditions to the best It was expressed in objects for Orthodox worship. The perfection of the lines, severity and luxury in an inconceivable way were combined in the minted ornaments of icons, crosses, salaries, folds, cadilla, bowls decorated with stones, written by miniatures and enamel. These magnificent things were always in demand by deeply believers.

For the ability of the Khlebnikovs to create monumental masterpieces, their company was repeatedly awarded orders of the Moscow Kremlin. The creation of church utensils for the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in 1883, by order of the Moscow Kremlin, was drawn up the iconostasis of the Annunciation Cathedral in 1896. For the Assumption Cathedral, the partnership was engaged in the execution of wall icons and kiots, tombstones for the metropolitans and patriarchs, and the creation of the iconostasis in the aisle of Dmitry Solunsky since 1898 for 1915

Khlebnikov factory stigma

The stigma below dates from 1874-1917. These are not all known samples. The enterprise, unfortunately, collectors, used a large number of punch.


the coat of arms of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich can be supplanted next to the name of the manufacturer, and the double -headed eagle appears since 1879. After the death of Ivan Petrovich, since 1882, a short stigma with initials has not been put, but only “Khlebnikov” or “Khlebnikov with Sonmi and Co.”

Lot No. 5054
Stop.Silver, gilding, enamel.R…
210 000.00