Viktor Grigoryevich Tsyplakov (1915, Ryazan region - 1986, Moscow). People's Artist of the RSFSR, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Arts of the USSR, Honored Artist of the RSFSR, twice Winner of the Stalin Prize of the USSR (1949, 1950). He studied in the workshop of G.M. Shegal, at the polygraphic College in Moscow (since 1932), at the Moscow State Art Institute named after V.I. Surikov. Since 1947 he has been the head of a personal workshop, since 1948 he has been a leading lecturer at the Moscow State Art Institute named after V.I. Surikov, since 1962 he has been a professor. He entered the history of Soviet art as a master of large thematic paintings: "A.M. Gorky on the Volga" (1945), "V.I. Lenin with the Peasants" (1959), etc. The composition "V.I. Lenin in Smolny" (1947) became a classic example of a ceremonial historical and revolutionary "portrait" of the Stalin era. The author of works on historical and revolutionary themes, as well as portraits and landscapes. Participated in the execution of the most important state order for the painting "Advanced People in the Kremlin" (together with V.P. Efanov, S.I. Dudnik, Yu.P. Kugach). The artist's solo exhibitions were held in Moscow in 1956 and 1986. The works of V.G. Tsyplakov are kept in the GTG, GRM, GIM and other leading museums of the world. Viktor Tsyplakov - artist of Russian realism V. Tsyplakov belongs to the generation of artists who began their creative path during the Great Patriotic War. In the autumn of 1942, he defended his thesis-the painting "V.I.Chapaev". This happened in Samarkand, where the Moscow State Art Institute named after V.I.Surikov was then located and where, despite the difficulties of wartime, classes continued. In the created image of Chapaev, the artist managed to find an expressive gesture of the hero, to understand and present the composition as a real life scene. Tsyplakov was left at the Institute for two years to improve his skills. Anxiety for the fate of the Motherland caused a special attitude to the Russian historical past and architectural monuments. However, even a simple landscape was then perceived as something sacred. In the newly liberated Smolensk, Tsyplakov writes the majestic Assumption Cathedral - the personification of the spiritual indestructible power of the great people. Another sketch depicts a part of the interior of the same cathedral with a high shining gold iconostasis. Restrained, but internally rich range of colors sounds like a choral chant, giving the canvas a special meaningful capacity and expressiveness. From those distant years, a tiny picturesque sketch with the figure of a sitting, deeply thoughtful V.I. Surikov has been preserved. A light pictorial hint conveys the deeply spiritual atmosphere of the wonderful master's work. The appearance of this sketch was not an accident. Russian Russian culture Young Tsyplakov at that time thought a lot about Russian culture, thought about Gorky, which was then associated with "the idea of everything Russian." In one of the sketches, F.I. Chaliapin is depicted next to Gorky. Subsequently, the artist refused to create a picture on this topic, but the sketch was, in a way, a refrain to the big picture "M.Gorky on the Volga" (1945god), where the artist depicted a young writer on the riverbank in deep thought. He looks at the Volga expanse - into the world of broad folk life. The artist rapidly entered Soviet art. His paintings were a success for the audience, were printed, traveled around the country and the world. This is the significant fate of his large canvas "Lenin in Smolny" (1947). The fruits of a long study of the Renaissance masters, as if rediscovered by the artist, affected her. In the 1940-50 years, he invariably participated in Moscow and All-Union exhibitions. But despite the fairly wide recognition (and in the circle of painters who studied with him), his work did not find a serious response in works on the history of Soviet art. Many years have passed since then, but the situation has not changed. A large solo exhibition in 1986 at the Academy of Fine Arts was a genuine new discovery of the artist. Tsyplakov was really looking forward to this exhibition, he was preparing for it, but he never saw it. The exhibition was the best confirmation that his work is not outdated, but on the contrary, it turned out to be quite modern and more ambitious than it seemed in the recent past. The national Russian motifs of landscape painting manifested themselves with especially great force. Those present at the exhibition involuntarily thought about the artist's place in the history of Russian art, about his fate and difficult creative biography. Viktor Tsyplakov was born in 1915 in Moscow, in a simple peasant family. Soon the Tsyplakov family returned to their homeland, to the village of Burminki in the former Ryazan province. Bright village impressions were enough for Victor for many years of his life. They could not only be joyful, these were the years of the civil war, the post-war famine. Among the works painted even before acquaintance with professional art, a watercolor head of a boy and a small picture of a cousin have been preserved. After graduating from the Isotechnikum, he entered the Moscow Art Institute. It was the time (1936) when I. Grabar and S. Gerasimov sought to restore the traditions of pictorial realism. Of the teachers who had the greatest influence were G. Shegal and his assistant V. Pochitalov. Both were excellent colorists. Among the teachers of drawing, Tsyplakov remembered A. Debler and the young energetic D. Mochalsky. But the same V. Pochitalov noticed: "Tsyplakov - he walked more with his spirit, his musculature, his strength." The main school for him was the Tretyakov Gallery. He studied at the works of V.Surikov, I. Repin, I. Levitan. A.Ryabushkin was very fascinated by the young artist. In Western painting, he was attracted by the Guardi, the Dutch, Claude Monet and the Barbizonians. Tsyplakov's work cannot be understood outside of the direction of Russian plein-air painting, closely associated with the names of K. Korovin, A.Stepanov, A.Arkhipov, S.Zhukovsky, P. Petrovichev, S.Malyutin, artists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. All of them have experienced the impact of impressionism. Although the perception of this trend in Russian art has always been independent, while receiving a national coloring. Tsyplakov was very fond of Korovin. In his passion for the Korovin direction, he became close to his older contemporary S.V. Gerasimov. Almost at the same time, they created portrait images of peasants, painted their "Winters" and "Winters". Both artists, one might say, breathed the Russian countryside. And yet the images they created are different. Characteristic of S. Gerasimov social sharpness and some sharpness in the images, Tsyplakov does not have this. Once Tsyplakov together with V. Yakovlev painted a portrait of a peasant. He was one of the "dispossessed". Tsyplakov suddenly saw in the face of this lost and confused man a special beauty of mental suffering and grief. In the deeply lyrical beginning, the artist saw a picturesque harmony. Landscape and genre composition are something inseparable for him. It is also connected with the traditions of the Moscow school. In this regard, "Spring Day" (1943) is especially interesting. In this sketch, as in the story of Ivan Bunin, everything lives, you believe everything and admire everything. The artist follows the same path of pictorial, poetic comprehension when developing other subjects. From the seemingly random, once seen motif "Bathing" (1945), one of the most colorful paintings grows - "After a hard Day" (1954). The bodies of the bathers really sparkle. Painted in golden, ruby-red tones, taken in contrast to the stormy sky and shadows running across the ground. However, such a contrasting juxtaposition does not destroy the solemn feeling of beauty and peace of the image. "After a hard day" together with the Plastovskaya "Spring" ("Old Bathhouse") It was an important frontier of Soviet post-war painting. History has confirmed the aesthetic value of these wonderful canvases. They reflected the full-blooded and at the same time chaste and sublime perception of the naked body, which is characteristic of Russian painting. Tsyplakov worked a lot and worked hard from nature, developing the same motives. He often repeats terraces with different views - to the garden, to the street or to the forest, a terrace in winter, in summer with a woman sitting down to rest, or in autumn "Hot Autumn". This is an independent poetic cycle, covering all seasons, the eternal cycle of nature. In the paintings of spring renewal, he manages to penetrate into the depths of the hidden, inner life of nature. Especially interesting are the spring landscapes "The Last Snow", "The Snow has come down", in which the state of the thawed, waiting for the warmth of the earth is poetically heartfelt. The Russian origin is expressed in the artist's constant attraction to a kind of musicality in the motifs. This is one of the secrets of the aesthetic charm of canvases. Tsyplakov was particularly clear about the ancient poetic image of the "singing" sun. "Frost and sun". Russian Russian poetry and music (Russian romance) can be felt even in the names of paintings and sketches.: "The last days of autumn", "Winter-winter", "March-bokogrei". The image of the snow covering the earth is also associated with the temples "Cathedral of the Nativity of the Mother of God in Suzdal", "Church of the Annunciation in Borisoglebsk". This is a very important aspect of the artist's art, who presented the earth decorated with the "majesty" of the temples shining on it. In winter landscapes, the virtuoso skill of the artist is particularly noteworthy - a diverse masonry of a colorful layer, sometimes more dense and weighty, then, on the contrary, blurred by air, almost watercolor. It is no accident that the sketch "Frost and the Sun", which is now in the Tretyakov Gallery, aroused the intense admiration of I. Grabar. A special place in Tsyplakov's painting is occupied by self-portraits. Especially worth noting is the latest self-portrait (with a burning candle, 1985), which conveys a very special atmosphere of loneliness and deep thoughts. It is not customary to call Tsyplakov a portraitist, but he repeatedly persistently turned to the art of this high and difficult genre. He was always more successful at portraits of close, kindred spirits of people. Portrait of the artist-poet P. Rodimov (1953) is a complex and subtle painting. Portrait.Leonova. (1949).