Porcelain figure "Scottish Terrier". Rosenthal Theodor Karner

Rosenthal Rosenthal

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Porcelain figure (statuette) "Scottish Terrier". Hand-painted underglaze. Germany, Rosenthal, 1919-1935. Sculptor: Theodor Karner (years of life: 1884-1966). Model number: P155, produced since 1923. Manufacturer's mark. Height: 9 cm, base size: 6.7 x 4 cm. No chips, damage, or restorations.

Lot No. 5181
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Porcelain figure "Scottish Terrier". Rosenthal Theodor Karner

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Theodore Kerners after 20 years.

Theodore Kerner after 20 years.
Theodore Kerners after 20 years.
1935 - 1945 Almost 20 years later, at the age of 69, Kerner would once again make models for the Rosenthal factory, this time as a freelance employee. Starting in 1953, the sculptor made 28 models for them and, if we count all the works in general for the factory, their number would exceed 100. Allach store in Warsaw, Hotel Europa. Allach store in Lviv, June 1942. The next chapter in Theodor Kerner's biography could be called Porzellan Manufaktur Allach. In any case, that was the original name of a small factory in the suburbs of Munich. Allach—Untermenzing, one of the oldest communities in Germany, was incorporated into Munich in 1938. The porcelain factory, now known as SS Porzellan Manufaktur Allach, was preceded by a private enterprise founded by Franz Nagy, Karl Diebitsch, and Theodor Kerner. This is well documented in the biography of Franz Nagy, one of the founders of the factory, and in the material "History of Origin and Ideology". The subsequent acquisition of the factory by the SS apparatus and its transfer under the control of the Main Administrative and Economic Office of the SS occurred in 1936, and the initiator of the process was likely Karl Diebitsch, a trusted person and personal friend of Heinrich Himmler. The formerly private factory became a limited liability company (GmbH). As a result, the house and land plot previously owned by Franz Nagy also became the property of the factory, so to speak.By 1939, the factory had expanded and "divided" - the porcelain department was located on the grounds of the SS camp in Dachau, while the ceramic department remained in Munich-Allach; Franz Nagy worked there as both a sculptor and a specialist in technology. Both Allach factories in Allah and Dachau were located near train stations. This was important because the necessary raw material for porcelain production, kaolin (white clay), was delivered by rail. The kaolin used exclusively by the Allach manufactory was supplied from deposits in Zettlitz (Sedlec) near Karlsbad. In 1937, the first exhibition space of the factory opened in Berlin. Other exhibition halls were opened at the beginning of the war in Poznan, Warsaw, and Lviv. Interestingly, Munich did not have a single exhibition hall or sales office for the factory. To be honest, even compared to the Nymphenburg factory, the volumes of artistic porcelain and ceramic items produced at Allach were so small that the factory was practically unknown to the general population. Plus, another important factor influencing the "popularity of the brand" was that Allach products were never supplied to "ordinary" porcelain stores. Allach shop in Warsaw, hotel "European", photo Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, Poland Allach shop in Warsaw, hotel "European", photo Narodowe Archiwum Cyfrowe, Poland I will take the liberty to suggest (until there are no documents confirming otherwise) that Kerners's appearance as the chief sculptor of Allach is directly related to his model of the SS officer mounted figure, released in late 1934 at the Rosenthal factory under number 1549, and then becoming the first in the range of Allach manufactures. In the literature dedicated to the factory, there is mention of negotiations with Rosenthal about mass production special orders for Himmler with the involvement of the factory's sculptors, but they were unsuccessful. There is only one model that actually indicates that such negotiations did take place. The sculpture of the SS officer mounted figure was the last in the series of Rosenthal figurines produced in 1934, and just a few months later, the Allach factory started operating, and this figure appeared as number "0" in its price list. It is possible that it was this figure that served as a "trial exam" for Kerner and, in general, for the future factory. It is also not a coincidence that almost all the sculptors who were involved in the "Allach project" had previously worked at the Rosenthal factory. Theodor Kerner, not being a permanent employee of Rosenthal and, therefore, not bound by contractual obligations to the factory, could easily accept the offer to head the new porcelain factory, especially since he did not previously hold such a significant position. Kerner is 51 years old; at the Allach factory, he is both the chief sculptor and the artistic director - complete freedom for creativity and, importantly, practically without too tight deadlines for work on models, at least in the first years of the factory's existence, the main result. Here is a simple example: two very similar models - a sitting dachshund puppy. And again, not by chance, but probably out of a desire to bring the work to a perfect example, Kerner based his own "Rosenthal" model on it.In 1933 (number 1247), he made a new sculpture for the Allach factory (model number 2). Undoubtedly, the Rosenthal dachshund is good in everything, but the Allach dachshund is simply magnificent. Left - Dachshund puppy No. 2 [ALLACH]; Right - Dachshund puppy No. 1247 [ROSENTHAL] Here are some of the most famous sculptures by Theodor Kern, produced by the factory in its early years. Except for items that were produced as state gifts or city orders, the factory's products could be purchased very cheaply in specially equipped exhibition spaces. Allach porcelain was clearly the cheapest of everything produced in Germany at that time. An example of this not being an empty statement is the following. In 1914, TheoDor Kernner created the model of a lying fox (number 481) for the Nymphenburg factory. This is, without a doubt, one of the best sculptures he created for them. According to the price list, the figure cost 21 gold marks in white and 42 gold marks in color. A similar model can be found in the Allach price list (number 79), which cost 3.92 reichsmarks in white and 6.25 reichsmarks in color - this was the price with the minimum monthly salary of a skilled worker at 150 reichsmarks and an average doctor at 500 reichsmarks in 1938. When reviewing the models of Porzellan-Manufaktur Allach-München GmbH, it is noticeable that, for example, candlesticks, figures in national costumes, soldiers, or Moorish dancers - were released as a series by one of the sculptors of the factory. Alongside numerous animal figures, horse figures have been a recurring theme throughout Kerner's work. In the factory's monthly planning report for December 1941, there is a record that "Professor Kernner is working to complete a series of horseback riders; Förster is working on a series of infantrymen." Here is what the monthly magazine "Münchner Mosaik" wrote about Kernner in 1938: "When it comes to historical groups, he (Kärner) thoroughly studies costumes and historical sources related to the subject, makes pencil sketches, and then models the horse and rider with a firm hand. They are his favorites."Del №17, Allach"> Seydlitz-Kürassier, model №17, Allach Seydlitz-Kürassier 1760, engraving 1913 Hussar of the Guards, model № 93, Allach Dragoon, model № 97, Allach From 1936 until the beginning of the war in 1939, Kern designed over 43 models for PMA. Among them were "Seydlitz-Kürassier" (Seydlitz-Kürassier, model № 17), "Officer of the Guards Hussar" (model № 29), "Amazon" (model № 82), "Hussar of the Guards" (model № 93), and also "Friedrich the Great" (model № 94). I would like to note that in the "Preliminary price list and model catalog" (Price lists "A" and "B"), as well as in the "Price list II", model number 29 was mistakenly attributed to Franz Nadya. The error was later corrected in the 1938/39 catalog, which was probably checked more critically and in more detail than the hectographic lists, partially typed with a typewriter. In the same catalog, "Amazon" is also mentioned in the row of three figures sonderanfertigungen (individually designed) together with "Athena" and "Munich Child", as an honorary gift in the equestrian sport competition "Braune Band". After the competition, the figure was produced for sale. Amazon, model No. 82, Allach Guard Hussar Officer, model No. 29, Allach If we dwell in more detail on orders from the municipal authorities for the production of figures, then in this regard it is necessary to note Kerner's letter to the director of the Department of Culture of the City of Munich Reinhard, in which he writes: "Returning to our recent conversation, I would like to inform you that, unfortunately, I do not have the opportunity to finish the Hussar model on time, as I am overloaded with various urgent work." The letter refers to the model of the "Hussar of the Guard", number 93. Perhaps there was an oral agreement on the timing between Kerner and Reinhard. May 20 In 1938, Kärner wrote to the chief burgomaster of the city of Munich: " Currently, the model is in plasticine in my studio. It will have to be cast in plaster, which will take quite a long time." Finally, on September 21, 1938, the figure was completed. It took quite a considerable time until it was mass-produced by the factory. The figure was not included in the catalog of 38/39, but the "Hussar of the Guard" in the appendix to the report on the state of affairs by December 31 , 1939 is indicated as executed in the number of 21 models in white and in 8 color models. Before the war , the Allach factory was model number 94 "Frederick the Great" ("Old Fritz") was released in 32 white and 4 color copies, as well as model number 97 "Dragoon" in 13 white and 2 color copies. Theodor Kerner is working on the model "Ziethen-Husar" 1765 Ziethen-Husar 1765, Allach Malachowski Husar, Allach During the war, the factory produced: model number 115 "Zieten-Husar 1756", model number 121 "Malachowski Husar", as well as model number 163 "Gendarme riding on horses", which was also designated as "Police Gendarmerie", the image of which is still missing. "Zieten-Husar 1756", as well as the still unconfirmed "Panduhr" are designated by Kerner in the monthly report for December 1941 as "under planning". Managing PMA Dachau Rudolf Dippe (Rudolf Dippe) on December 20, 1943 reported to the personal headquarters of the Reichsfuhrer SS: "As another special The model "Gendarmerie Officer" was created for the Reichsfuhrer-SS . Model according to the letter of Lieutenant Colonel CC Doctor Brandt from 30.11.(1943)...completed. We ask you to give us an order for this model." Three months later, on March 3, 1944, Dipp writes the following: "As for equestrian sculptures, unfortunately, the production situation at the beginning of this year was catastrophic. The only specialist still available is seriously ill and is unlikely to be able to appear on factory more than once a month." On March 24, 1944, Dipp wrote to Fraulein Lorenz, the adjutant of the Reichsfuhrer-SS, who was responsible for the gift fund: "Unfortunately, the sculpture of the horseman, as previously announced, is canceled, since the only specialist who can be entrusted with this work has fallen ill and probably won't be able to work until the middle of this year." April 17 , 1944 Rudolf Dipp reports to the personal headquarters of the Reichsfuhrer SS: "After several orders for horsemen figures have been received from the SS Reichsfuhrer recently , we would like to draw your attention to attention once again to the fact that at the moment the production of riders is impossible. The only specialist who can perform these complex tasks has been ill for quite a long time; probably only in in June or July, if his health allows, he will be able to start work. Other workers who are taken into account when such work is carried out are called to the front; meanwhile, one specialist has died. So we we would like to ask you to inform the Reichsfuhrer that only a small stock of figures is available, which should be enough until the end of August. Attached below is a list of equestrian sculptures available in stock. In color: 2 Seydlitz-Kurassier, 2 Frederick the Great, 1 Hussar of the Guard, 1 Hussar Zieten, 4 Hussars Malachowski, 1 Dragoon, 3 SS Riders. White: 4 Hussars of the Guard, 1 Hussar Malachowski, 3 Police gendarmerie, 4 Riders SS.". The Catholic situation in the 1944-45 production at the factory helped attract prisoners of the Dachau concentration camp to work, and saved some prisoners' lives. The prisoner of the concentration camp, Hans Landauer recalls: "After the death of Adolf Sauer, the chief designer of the manufactory, masterline recommended me to work on the figures "Stryjgrich", "Hussar Zieten" and "Pandur". For these shapes that they consist of several dozen separate parts, it was also necessary to add handmade reins and stirrups, which were made from a mixture of gum arabic with porcelain mass .... Thanks to my work, I was needed for the porcelain factory. Moreover, Master Gain fell ill with pneumonia and also died suddenly." Hans Landauer further writes: "When I was already making horsemen, he (Professor Kerner) came one day with Josef Torak and I told him that I had recently finished the figure of the "Old Fritz". Frederick the Great (Old Fritz) mod. No. 94, Allach As the artistic director of the manufactory, Theodor Kerner managed to assemble a "wonderful team" of high-class sculptors from freelance employees . Among them are Wilhelm Neuhauser and Karl Himmelstoss, Professor Wilhelm Krieger, Ottomar Obermayer and Professor Willy Zugel. All of them knew Kerner from work either at Nymphenburg or at the Rosenthal factory. If you trust the rumors about the exclusively Nazi ideology of the factory, which have been spreading for a long time about porcelain Allach, it would be possible to defame all the mentioned artists only because they worked at the factory for several years. It is also necessary to comprehend the fact that Theodor Kerner, an absolutely non -political artist, was arrested by the occupation authorities in 1945 and placed in the Moosburg internment camp, a political prison in which he spent two years. Theodore Kerner was in a rather low rank SS-Hauptsturmführers (Haupt-sturmführer = captain). On November 9, 1936, he received, or rather accepted it because he could not refuse without certain consequences for himself. For comparison, imagine for a second such an analogue from the recent past of our country – can, for example, a factory director not be a member of the CPSU? And given the "guilt complex" persistently instilled in the Germans after 1945, that is why his name is not mentioned among the outstanding sculptors of Germany. The same thing happened until recently with the aforementioned freelance sculptors of the Allach factory. There was even such a stereotype "worked for Allach = served in the SS". But here 's what's interesting and it's downright bizarre, if you remember that immediately after the end of the war in the field of trade works of art in the USA and England, the works of the politically outlawed artist Theodor Kerner in Germany reached unusually high prices, by no means such as were once established in Allach. Not to mention today's prices for factory products (but this is from "another opera".) Works of art have always been highly valued and I, as far as possible, in all materials and studies , try not to give them any political assessments, but I cannot pass by double morality. After being released from Camp Kerner was in 1947 – 1953 the head of the art department of the Eduard Haberlander porcelain factory (Porzellanfabrik Eduard Haberländer), then Oscar Schaller (Oscar Schaller & amp; Co) and his branch – the porcelain factory in Windischeschenbach. In January 1950, a report appeared in the magazine Schaulade that part of the collection "of the former Allach porcelain factory, received from this company, was re-released at the Eschenbach factory." Models were produced at the Oskar Schaller porcelain factory in Windischesenbach riders in the forms of PMA – "Amazon", (model number K 43 for Eschenbach), as well as Frederick the Great (model number K 100 for Eschenbach). The letter "K" indicates the art department, not Kerner. Also, the models of other employees of Allach, for example, Franz Nagy, produced after the war by this plant have the letter "K" in the number. It must have been a great satisfaction for the aging sculptor to see most of his models back in production. A richly illustrated special catalog was published in his honor at the Eschenbach factory. Together with a large the artist's photo, in which he is depicted working on a model, has a preface: "Professor Theodor Kerner... enjoys a reputation as one of the best porcelain artists of our time." Since 1953, Kerner again collaborated with the Rosenthal plant as a freelance employee. A few years before his death, he, in close collaboration with his cousin, the engraver Karl Neidhardt, worked on a series of 12 decorative "animal-themed" wall plates made in steel engraving and porcelain. Kerner was drawing and sketching all the time future paintings and sculptures. In my collection there are some wonderful pencil drawings from 1961-62, when the master was under 80. His gaze was just as sharp and his hand was still firm. Theodore Kerner died on September 6, 1966, at the age of 82. As an afterword, I would like to highlight one important point – the models produced at the Allach manufactory were the property of artists. Karl Mummentey, head of the department of the SS General Administrative and Economic Department, wrote to his boss Oswald Pohl: "Most artists have signed a contract, after which they receive a fee for using their models in the amount of 15% of their value and sale ........ Colonel Wartenberg is negotiating with Professor Kerner and a fester about buying them models. Both refused to sell their PMA models and state that they insist on keeping the contract." Porcelain production at the Allach factory continued until 1945. Albert Noll in the book "Die Porzellanmanufaktur München-Allach. Das Lieblingskind von Heinrich Himmler" writes the following: "During the last days of the war, all porcelain products, ceramics and molds allegedly had to be buried near the enterprise. None of this has been found until today." Dachau camp was liberated by the 42nd Division of the US Army on April 29, 1945 years. That was the end of the history of the Allach porcelain manufactory. Judging by the large number of items of the Allach manufactory that settled in the United States and appear with constant frequency at American auctions, as well as put up for sale from "individual citizens", most likely officers and employees of the 42 division found them abandoned in the production premises or in the warehouses of the factory. And then they took him home as souvenirs and war trophies. It was also a difficult story with Theodore Kerner's models. According to Gustl Ullrich, Kerner's niece, he is in At the end of the war, he handed over his own forms for safekeeping to his friend, the artist Franz Xaver Stahl. These forms were then used Kerner in Eschenbach after his release from the Moosburg camp. Of course, this study does not cover all of Kerner's models made by him at the Allach factory. Even now, decades after the closure of the porcelain manufactory, there are items that are not described in reference books and catalogs and in general in special literature. Such findings should be the subject of further research. Among them, for example, porcelain chess pieces. It is possible that this is also someone's special order. However, these are questions that currently have no answer.
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Theodor Kärner and Porzellanfabrik Rosenthal A.G.

Theodor Kärner and Porzellanfabrik Rosenthal A.G.
Theodor Kärner and Porzellanfabrik Rosenthal A.G.
"A significant creative period in Theodor Kerner's life is associated with Porzellanfabrik Rosenthal A.G. The Royal Bavarian Secret Commercial Councilor, Doctor Philipp Rosenthal (1855 – 1937), who was a long-time friend of the sculptor Theodor Kerner, offered him a position as an external collaborator at the factory he managed in Upper Franconia. Kerner gladly accepted the offer. It is worth mentioning that Philipp Rosenthal often gave his clients a medallion with his bas-relief. The medallion was made for him by Theodor Kerner. Königlich-bayerische – Kgl. Bayer. Kommerzienrat – Royal Bavarian Commercial Councilor. The honorary title of commercial councilor (Kommerzienrat) existed in the German Empire until 1919. It was awarded to entrepreneurs only if they made significant "contributions to the common good" (Stiftungen für das Gemeinwohl). The next rank in the "rank table" was the Secret Commercial Councilor (Geheime Kommerzienrat), which gave its holder the right to be received at court. The recipient himself, as well as his wife and children, could participate in the public life of the princely court. The images attached show the Maria and Donatello services by F. Rosenthal. Philipp Rosenthal was not only one of the most successful entrepreneurs of the 20th century."about a century, but also as a designer in the classical sense of the word, that is, a creative director. The "Donatello" service, created by Hans Günther Reinstein, and the "Maria" service were embodiments of his ideas. Moose model no. 706, Theodor Karner, [Rosenthal, 1930s] Rosenthal catalog Theodor Karner was a frequent and welcome guest at the Rosenthal villa. 1922 can be considered the start of the sculptor's ongoing collaboration with the Rosenthal company. Philipp Rosenthal acquired the Selb production in 1917, which, although belonging to him, initially remained the private property of the company owner (previously Jacob Zeidler & Co., founded in 1866), but it was in 1922 that the full production of artistic and decorative porcelain began at Porzellanfabrik Rosenthal A.G., and the pieces were marked with the Kunstabteilung (art department) logo. In 1924 and 1930, two Christmas plates with Karner's drawings were released by the company. His works were published in a special catalog of the company, on the inner side of which, on an attached label, there was a note stating that the catalog was not handed to "third parties, in particular, competing firms".The business relationship with the factory lasted for at least 16 years, from 1918 to 1934, and during this time Theodor Karner created 43 models. In 1934, the artist celebrated his 50th birthday. His love and respect can be judged by the specially decorated showcase of the Rosenthal store in Munich. Rosenthal showcase 1934 The fact that art and politics are closely interconnected is no secret to anyone. But it was particularly evident in the artistic works of the 1930s and 1940s. Political orders affected all aspects of life, and this is especially noticeable in the examples of Russia and Germany. Theater, cinema, applied arts, music, painting, sculpture – all forms of art served one purpose and one idea: global revolution on one hand, and the national-socialist idea on the other. Patriotic plates, Kerner, Rosenthal Rosenthal's anniversary in 1940 was celebrated under the swastika. In 1934, Philipp Rosenthal was forced to emigrate from Germany. Theodor Kerner was not willing to continue working at the factory under the new management system that was created as part of the so-called "Ariization" policy - the policy of excluding Jews from the country's economic life. His departure from the factory was likely not politically motivated, but rather could have been due to changing financial conditions and the new management's methods of working with regular and freelance artists. The next, and perhaps the most difficult and significant stage of his life, was his work at the newly established porcelain factory in the suburb of Munich, Allach... But that's a topic for a new chapter.
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Theodor Karner Theodor Karner [10.1.1884 Hohenberg — 6.9.1966, Munich]

Theodor Kärner (10.1.1884 Hohenberg – 6.9.1966, Munich)
Theodor Karner Theodor Karner [10.1.1884 Hohenberg — 6.9.1966, Munich]
Theodor Kärner (10.1.1884 Hohenberg - 6.9.1966, Munich) At the beginning of this article, I would like to note the fortunate circumstances for the sculptor that his family came from an old "porcelain dynasty." Theodor Kärner was born in Bavaria on January 10, 1884, in the small town of Hohenberg der Eger (Hohenberg on the River Eger). His father worked at the Hutschenreuther porcelain factory, founded in 1814 by the artist Karl Magnus Hutschenreuther. The deeply respectful attitude towards the art craft that was instilled in him from childhood greatly influenced Kärner's entire artistic career. As a child, the future sculptor showed a special talent for drawing. Between 1898 and 1903, he studied as a modeler at the Hutschenreuther factory, and in 1906, the entire Kärner family moved to Munich. The most famous representative of the Neo-Baroque style in Munich in the early 20th century was the sculptor Wilhelm von Rümann (1850-1906), who became a professor of sculpture at the Munich Academy in 1887 and was highly esteemed by the reigning Prince Regent of Bavaria. In stylistic opposition to him was "the artistic father" of Munich, Adolf von Hildebrand (1847-1921), who only recognized late classicism as a style. Kärner's Neo-Baroque style was formed during his studies at the Bavarian School of Applied Arts in Munich. He attended the sculpture classes of Professor Heinrich Waderé (1865-1950) and Professor Anton Pruska (1846-1930), who taught decorative sculpture, including animalism and ornamentation. Kärner then studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts as a free listener. (table omitted)lign="left"> Wilhelm von Rümann Fragment of the monument to Kaiser Wilhelm, Rümann, 1893 Adolf von Hildebrand Figure of Philoctetes, Hildebrand, 1886 Heinrich von Zügel Theodore Kerners main teacher was the famous German animalist Heinrich von Zügel (Heinrich von Zügel, 1850–1941), who led two classes at the Academy - for painters and sculptors. The fact that Kerner, who had been working as a sculptor for many years, had an incessant desire to continue learning is evidenced by the fact that he later attended evening courses at the academy in 1918-1921. Diligence and talent evoked a great sense of respect from the teachers. And after only 2 semesters of study, he was allowed to have his own workshop. According to his own admission, Kerner spent a total of 14 semesters at the Academy, in 1914-1915 and 1920-1921. But let's go back to 1905. Just having finished his education and being unknown to anyone, Theodore Kerner receives an offer from the director of the Nymphenburg porcelain factory to create a sculpture for the spring fair and, in case of success, a position as a sculptor at the factory.Brick. When the sculpture "forest marten", made in life size, unexpectedly brought success to the factory at the Leipzig Spring Fair, Albert Bäuml, the factory director, fulfilled his promise: on April 15, 1905, the sculptor received a place at the Nymphenburg factory. During his student years, the Bavarian capital became his second home. Until 1930, he lived first with relatives on Ferdinand-Maria Straße No. 211. The workshop was located at that time in Dr. Zölner's villa, in the same area, at Malsenstraße No. 43. Later, the sculptor moved to Schluderstraße, where the apartment and workshop were merged together, and he lived there from the end of the war until his death. He was repeatedly offered a position as a professor at the Munich Academy, but Kerner always declined. On April 20, 1938, 54-year-old Theodor Kerner received the title of professor, most likely for political reasons. In Munich, he had many like-minded and interested friends: Lutz Heck, a renowned zoologist and director of the Munich Zoo, Dr. Adalbert Zöllner, head of one of the Rosenthal branches in Munich, and the artist Franz Xaver Stahl. In this regard, another sculptor should be mentioned, who was a year younger than Kerner, the artist and illustrator Wilhelm Neuhäuser. He was friends with Kerner since their time at the Bavarian School of Applied Arts and later at the Academy. They were also students of Professor Heinrich von Zügel. Like Kerner, Neuhäuser was a permanent.Theodore Karner was an employee of the Nymphenburg porcelain factory. Between 1911 and 1912, he created 16 "animal sculptures." The peacock figure, which is over 40 centimeters long, was created by the sculptor Theodore Karner at the age of 21 and is considered one of the most famous and outstanding figures of the Nymphenburg porcelain factory. The elegant shape of the bird is emphasized by skillful underglaze painting, a technique that was perfected in the early 20th century. In this technique, the paint is applied with a brush or airbrush immediately after the first firing, but before the sculpture is immersed in glaze. After firing, layers of certain colors become transparent and blend together to form subtle color gradients.The richness of colors in the peacock's feathers is a characteristic result of this painting method. In 1917, the Nymphenburg factory planned to release a unique model that was not part of the regular production. It was supposed to be a figure of a large eagle sitting with spread wings on a pedestal decorated with oak leaves, a symbol of military honor and valor. Theodore Karner worked on the order, and it was most likely a special order, as it was quite expensive for a relatively small production and probably did not come from the factory itself. On the other hand, it is somewhat strange to create a sculpture as a "victory sign" during an almost lost war. Since the eagle is a heraldic symbolThe Bavarian symbol seems foreign, so it can be assumed that the eagle was supposed to look "imperial". However, only an unfinished model from 1918, signed and dated, of Kerners design has been preserved. It is stored in the factory archive. Otto Pelka, an excellent porcelain specialist, wrote in his book "Keramik der Neuzeit" (Ceramics of Modernity), published in Leipzig in 1924, that there is no doubt that the special "Nymphenburg style" in the depiction of animals was mainly formed thanks to the work of Theodor Kerner. This style was noticed and appropriately appreciated by his contemporaries. In the period from 1905 to 1918, Theodor Kerner created 88 models for the Nymphenburg factory. Considering that between 1905-1921 a total of 155 sculptural models were produced at Nymphenburg, Kerner's contribution to the development of the factory can be considered the most significant. Before concluding the chapter "Nymphenburg" in Kerner's life, I would like to highlight a number of facts that actually marked the end of this period of his life. As a permanent employee of the manufactory, he received a very modest salary for several years before the First World War.monthly earnings amounting to 120 gold marks. For example, the salary of a young teacher in a public school was 100 marks. Due to the "low wage that humiliates him as an artist," Kerner announced his departure in 1918, to which Albert Boymle, the factory director, condescendingly remarked that Kerner would surely not find another permanent job anywhere as a sculptor-animalist. When Boymle realized that he had gone too far and Kerner's intention to leave the factory was serious, he promised to triple his salary. However, Kerner insisted on an immediate termination of his contract with the factory. Then an unpleasant, but quite understandable, incident occurred - the director, who obviously understood very little about art but was excellent with commercial matters, accused the sculptor of allegedly demanding double payment from a client for one of his models. In this story, all accusations against Kerner were clearly fabricated in order to avoid paying the sculptor his deserved fee. We are talking about his sculpture of a reclining puma (model number 560) completed in 1918. The artist never forgot the insult he received for the rest of his life. Fortunately, significant and favorable changes soon occurred in his career...

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