Features of the landscape

Features of the landscape

Before the Renaissance, the landscape performed a decorative function. But before the landscape became the bearer of the idea and before it began to help reveal the character of the main characters, and even more so gained independence, a very long time passed.

How was the landscape genre born?

For the first time, we see the image of nature on the reliefs of ancient civilizations that arose on the banks of mighty rivers. In paintings or sculptures that have survived to the present day, the landscape represents rare specimens of flora. And only in the Renaissance, when Italians became interested in nature, the landscape won its place under the ramps.

The appeal to nature occurs synchronously with the awakening of human curiosity. A person is trying to figure out what is stronger in him – spiritual or material? What is the meaning of life or what brings happiness?

The Germans believed that nature brings confusion into a person's life. And if instincts win in a person, wait for trouble. The Italians did not agree with their northern colleagues, they found that only a balance of two principles in a person can give a harmonious personality. Titian and Giorgione embodied this idea in their paintings, while Raphael paid more respect to the urban landscape, enjoying the harmony of lines. The era of Romanticism arose in opposition to the Enlightenment era in order to restore the disturbed balance. Feeling that human morality and morals are far from perfect, the artists turned to nature. The seasons of the year were designed to reflect the states of the human soul. Finally, nature prevailed by the 19th century.

Features of landscape in painting

The originality of the landscape depends on the place that is assigned to the landscape in the picture, and the individual perception of nature by artists. The culmination of the landscape genre

The French painted nature, trying to depict all its many shades and moods. Starting with Corot and up to the Impressionists, the landscape experienced years of triumph. Senior Impressionists — K. Monet, K. Pissarro, A. Sisley have already worked exclusively in the fresh air to prevent the slightest distortion. The notorious light-and-air environment, which in the picture connected nature and man together, has firmly entered the annals of art.

Landscape series appeared, united by one motif. The Impressionists respected both the rural and urban landscape equally. But landscape as an art form could not stand still and had to develop. Cezanne, Georges Seurat and Van Gogh brought their characteristic vision to the landscape. The nature of Paul Cezanne is majestic, monumental, it has clear boundaries. Georges Seurat played with an optical effect, affecting the viewer with color. His mosaic paintings are stylized, decorative. The frantic Van Gogh poured out his soul in his paintings, he used nature as a mouthpiece to convey to the viewer his pain from the consciousness of human imperfection.

Paul Gauguin closes the system of post-impressionists, his work is close to symbolism, where nature only vaguely resembles its prototype. Its color planes, which have replaced the shape, have a categorical sound. Features of landscape in painting on paintings by Russian artists

Russian artists Savrasov and Shishkin also influenced the development of the genre. In their paintings they lovingly depicted Russian nature — steppes and lakes, fields and forests. The celebration of rural life in Russia was performed in the spirit of the Central European landscape. The soft colors came in handy to the Russian expanses. Seascapes have gained worldwide fame thanks to Aivazovsky, who has reached unattainable heights in this genre.

French Impressionism found a response in the works of Serov and Korovin, whose works have received recognition. Soviet artists — Krymov, Grabar — manifested the beauty of human labor, going hand in hand with nature. The process of urbanization has also had an impact on the art world. Today, Vasily Afanasyevich Leskov can be distinguished from the galaxy of talented artists, his paintings are unpredictable and very spectacular.

Over the centuries, the role of landscape in art has been constantly changing, and the skill of artists has steadily grown. Modern artists enjoy great freedom in choosing the means of expression and technique. If you want your house to be decorated with a landscape that can ignite the imagination, order paintings from a real master.

Subgenres of landscape painting

According to the type of motifs depicted , landscapes are divided into numerous categories:

  • rural;
  • urban;
  • architectural;
  • mountain, marine, forest, etc.

When classified according to the breadth of coverage, landscapes are divided into chamber and panoramic.

Depending on the plot , the following types of landscapes are distinguished:

  • epic;
  • historical;
  • heroic;
  • lyrical;
  • romantic;
  • fantastic;
  • abstract, etc.

Famous masters and works in the genre of landscape

Landscape masters who lived in different eras in different parts of the world left their immortal creations to the world:

  • El Greco, "The View of Toledo";
  • Peter Brueghel Sr., "Hunters in the Snow";
  • Claude Lorrain, "Pastoral Landscape";
  • John Constable, "The Hay Cart";
  • Katsushika Hokusai, "Clear sky with Thirty-six views of Mount Fuji";
  • Thomas Cole, "View from Mount Holyoke";
  • Claude Monet, "Sunrise";
  • Ivan Aivazovsky, "View of Constantinople and the Bosphorus".

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