Manufactory F.Ya.Gardner


Manufactory F.Ya.Gardner

In March 1766, the official opening of the factory settled in Russia by the Scottish merchant Francis (Franz) Gardner took place.Although the production itself was organized earlier, in 1754, when the land with the village of Verbilsy belonged to Prince Nikolai Urusov.

Before opening his factory, Gardner traveled a lot around Russia - from Solovki to Siberia, looking for a special clay for porcelain.He found the best option in Little Russia already familiar to him - in the Chernihiv region (the so -called "Glukhovskaya").Having solved the issue of raw materials, Gardner made a promise to “fill up” the empire of his own porcelain dishes, so as not to pay for imported (for example, Meissen porcelain).The organization of the factory was attended by the eldest son of Gardner and Professor of the University of Geneva, Franz Gattenberg, a foreigner who was soon called to St. Petersburg to manage the imperial porcelain factory.

In 1777-1783, the Empress of Catherine II was made for Empress of Catherine II four Order Services Georgievsky, Andreevsky, Aleksandrovsky and Vladimirsky.All of them were designed for techniques in honor of the gentlemen of these orders.The very first service really liked Catherine II, and Gardner was awarded the highest audience.Immediately after the reception “at the very top”, the Moscow General General Gardner granted the right to place an image of the Moscow coat of arms on his products, Prince Yusupov, former manager of the imperial porcelain factory, also promised his patronage.

Gardner understood that it was necessary to develop different directions, and in parallel with exclusive, began to develop mass production.

Porcelain was originally European, as the first masters Gardner invited the illustrious Meysen.One of them was Johann Miller, who managed to work at the Imperial Porcelain Plant under the leadership of Dmitry Vinogradov.Along with an exclusive, intended for the imperial palaces and houses of the highest aristocracy, Gardner, who had a born gift for commerce, established the mass production of porcelain dishes.It was highly appreciated in Russia, and many who could not afford to buy imported Saxon porcelain, willingly acquired a “native”, Gardner.I had to expand the production: if in 1771 70 people worked at the factory in the verdies, then in a decade this amount doubled.Moreover, of one and a half hundred employees, only the manager and the artist were foreigners.

When Franz Gardner died, his brainchild was considered the best private porcelain factory in Russia.The heirs continued the case, in particular the plant crossed the eldest son Franzevich, who had survived his father for a while.Then to the wife of Gardner, Sarre Alexandrovna, who could not properly dispose of the inheritance.At the beginning of the 19th century, the factory goes to her sons, Alexander Frantsevich and Peter Frantsevich, who managed to revive production.

Since 1833, the factory has mastered the release of dishes from the faience, and in the 1840s - from the spell (the highest variety of faience).Gardner's porcelain became the standard for other private Russian factories.

In 1829, the factory received a gold medal at the first industrial exhibition, and in 1855 - the emperor and honorary right to put the image of the now state biceps eagle on the products.In the Russian Empire, it was the equivalent of a quality sign.The right to use the image of the State Emblem of Russia on the Products of "Manufactory Gardner" was confirmed in 1865, 1872, 1882, 1896.Since 1856, the factory "Manufactory Gardner" has the title "Supplier of the court of his imperial majesty."

In the mid-1850s, the factory passed to Vladimir Petrovich and Alexander Petrovich, the grandchildren of Franz Gardner.Then, by the end of the 19th century, the owner of the third brother, Pavel Petrovich, Elizaveta Nikolaevna Gardner, who eventually sold the factory, became the owner.

However, in the 2nd half of the 19th century, the artistic level of plant products degrades.The dominance of patterned painting techniques, the introduction of translated pictures (decalcomia) with reproductions of salon painting, calculation for commercial success leads to a decline in plastic and decorative culture.Only “East” (for Central Asia) and “tavern” dishes with bright festive painting and individual exhibition products made according to the sketches of artists retain some identity.From the possible reasons: the aggravation of relations with Britain after the Crimean War (during this period, arrests were superimposed on the property of the British-Pods) and the inability of Gardner’s heirs will “get sick” for the specifics of domestic business.

In the mid-1880s, porcelain products for 208 thousand rubles were produced at a factory with 777 workers.

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